The Republic of Ivalice (commonly referred to as Ivalice) (Kapuran :???? ????) is a federal constitutional republic consisting of three states and an additional state-level federal district. Located off the eastern coast of the United States of America, Ivalice is an island country, consisting of two main islands and several smaller islands. Ivalice is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. After its discovery by errant British explorers in an expedition prior to major European travels during the Age of Discovery, it was settled after the expedition's ships were shipwrecked on rocks, off what is now Ivalion, Califia, in the 14th century. Following a seven year civil war in the 17th century, the unified Republic of Ivalice was founded. Its national capital and largest city is Koiwai.
The name of the Republic of Ivalice is derived from the Kingdom of Saint Ivalice, one of the two predecessor states. The origin of the name Saint Ivalice is unknown. The long form "Republic of Ivalice" is rarely used to describe the nation, except in the most formal of occasions and in government application.
The Republic of Ivalice consists of two main islands and several smaller islands off of the eastern coast of North America. The largest island, named Ivalice, is large, and roughly diamond-shaped. The total area of the main island is 652,334 km2. The second largest island, called Luna, is to the north of the main island, and is a part of the state of Califia. There are several natural harbors on the east coast of Ivalice, two of which, Ivalion Harbor and the Bay of Saint James, were among the first landing points for colonists to the island, and remain important to this day.
The island is divided north to south by a large mountain chain, the Ordero Mountains. The highest mountain, Mount Eh, in Forriedor, is also the highest point on the island.
With the exception of Luna and some other more northern parts of Califia, Ivalice is subject to a subtropical climate. Along the coasts, winters are very mild, and snowfall is rare. Summers are hot and humid with warm evenings. In the interior, winters are less mild, and large snowfall is possible, though not frequent. The highest recorded temperature in the nation is 107 degrees Fahrenheit, recorded in Vail, Califia on July 27, 1962. The lowest recorded temperature in the nation is -12 degrees Fahrenheit, recorded in Gardenia, Gallia, on March 12, 1993, during the 1993 Storm of the Century.
In November 1353, a large group of explorers left Great Britain for Spain to pick up supplies and crew, intending to explore the western ocean for settlement and the promise of a New World with vast natural resources. Leaving London with a year's worth of food on six ships, and skilled fishermen aboard, the expeditionary group was lost at sea for 10 weeks before landing on the island of Ivalice in the Western Atlantic at modern day Ivalion, with nearly no food remaining. Upon landing on the island, they decided to settle there, seeing little to no chance of surviving a return voyage. The group immediately split into two factions, one wanting to replicate the monarchy typical of the time, and the other wanting a more 'united' system, where the people were involved in making the decisions. The democratic faction left the monarchists for the south, eventually settling into a village that would become Randgriz City. The monarchists and the democrats were out of contact with each other for one hundred and fifty years. By that time, the two groups had prospered into small nations, and having re-established contact with the major European powers, been recognized as independent states.
By 1609, however relations between the two group became cold once again, with the northern monarchists, styled The Kingdom of Saint Ivalice, looking at expanding into the southeastern territories of the democrats, the Gallian Republic. King Marche II of the northern kingdom authorized an invasion of the southern republic with his army of one thousand men, sparking what would be known in the future as the Unification War. The Republic, having a vastly outnumbered army, instead asked for the support of King Philip III of Spain. Spain sent 8,000 prisoners, and weapons to equip them to the Republic as support, in exchange for giving the prisoners permanent residence in the Republic. The war waged on for three years in a series of bloody stalemates until both sides were lacking in resources to continue a war. The two states then came together to share resources under one nation, modern day Ivalice, with a national capital at Koiwai, a small neutral city sited at the far southern point of the island.
An island to the north of the main island of Ivalice, sparsely populated with natives, but claimed by Ivalice, was granted to the Spanish ex-prisoners to settle, and became a part of the state of Califia, named Luna.
European Colonization of the Americas
For the next two centuries, Ivalice became a resupplying stop on colonial expeditions from Europe to the New World. In particular, Ivalician traders became particularly close to British colonists destined for the mid-Atlantic coast, who would eventually become Ivalice's large neighbor, the United States. Many colonists decided to settle in Ivalice, rather than continue to the mainland, contributing to the island nation's early population growth. During the American Revolution, many of Ivalice's citizens supported the Americans' independence movement, but no official support was provided to the American cause from the government, to avoid spoiling relations with the British.
As the slave trade with Africa continued into the 1800s, Ivalice was a major point of trade between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. In 1894, the Diet adopted a law forbidding lifetime slavery; Slaves imported to Ivalice were to either be set free or paid wages after twenty-five years of unpaid labor. This measure proved to be unpopular with former slaveowners, and as a unity compromise, the Diet set a very low minimum wage of for slaves, half of the lowest average wage in the freedman's county of residence. However, the new policy was very popular with the Africans themselves, and slaves from America attempted to escape to Ivalice to seek freedom.
The Industrial Revolution led to economic changes for Ivalice. The arrival of steam-powered engines heralded the arrival of factories, and rampant pollution to the island nation. Industrialization, and its consequences, in turn, led to chronic health problems and has now redeveloped from it.
Politics and Government
Ivalice is a constitutional republic and representative democracy. The government is divided into three main branches, each designed to have no more power than any other branch as defined by the Ivalician Constitution, which is the highest word of law in the nation. There are three levels of government, Federal, State, and Regional. The nation is divided into several single-representative sectors. The federal government is composed of three branches, Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
Ivalice's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives, containing 200 seats, elected directly by popular vote every four years and a Senate of 80 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. The Vice President of Ivalice serves as the leader and moderator of the Senate for debates, and can vote in the event of an even split. The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the equivalent position in the House, and is chosen by its members at the start of a new term of congress from amongst its members. The legislature meets at the National Capitol Building in Koiwai.
The President of Ivalice is both the head of state and head of government. The position is elected popularly by the people and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. The President is the head of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the Secretaries of State. The current president is John Martin, and his vice president is Shi Johnson-Williams. The president appoints a cabinet of advisors, called secretaries, to lead the government's various executive departments. Each secretary must be approved by the Senate before serving on the cabinet.
The supreme judicial body of Ivalice is the High Court. It is led by the Chief Justice of Ivalice, and also consists of six associate justices. Justices to the court are appointed by the President, and must be confirmed by the Senate. Justices serve a life term, terminable only in death, retirement, or impeachment.
There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elective offices. All executive and legislative officials are elected by plurality vote by eligible citizens by voting district. Ivalice is classified as a three-party system state, with the main parties being the liberal Rights Party, the moderate Unity Party, and the conservative Conservative Party. Elections for the House of Representatives occur every two years, elections for the President, Vice President, and non-High Court Federal judges occur every four years, and elections for the Senate occur every six years, staggered every two years. The most recent national election occurred on December 6, 2010.
Ivalice is divided into three states and a federal district at the top level. The northern most state, Califia, is the most heavily populated, but is also the least densely populated. Califia's state capital is Ivalion. Forriedor, the western state, is the largest in area. Forriedor's state capital is Londinium. Gallia is the eastern state, and the most densely populated. Gallia's state capital is Randgriz City, which makes up half of the Koiwai-Randgriz Metropolitan Area. The Ivalician Federal District is the smallest division. It contains the national capital, Koiwai, which is also the seat of district government. The two predecessor states of the Republic of Ivalice, the Gallian Republic and Kingdom of Saint Ivalice, were comprised of most of what is now the states of Gallia and Califia, respectively, and parts of what is now Forriedor.
Each state and the federal district is further divided into counties, or county-level cities, such as Gardenia, Gallia. Each county has its own popularly elected government with jurisdiction over the county, under the State and Federal governments.
Ivalice has a mixed capitalist economy with limited government regulation, usually for what is deemed to be the best interests of the people. Its currency is the into. Based on gross domestic product, Ivalice's economy is the fourth largest in North America, behind the United States, Mexico, and Canada. The country ranks thirty-fifth in the world in nominal GDP per capita and fourteenth in GDP per capita at PPP.
Ivalice's economy is postindustrial, with the service sector contributing 53.1% of GDP, though Ivalice remains an industrial power. Consumer electronics are the leading manufacturing field. The country's top trading partners are the United States, Mexico, China, Canada, and Japan. Its chief export is consumer electronics and its main imports are food and manufactured goods. The top industries by percentage of GDP are financial services, manufacturing, and tourism. Ivalice was hit disproportionally hit by the dot-com burst in the early 2000s, but has since rebounded.
State ownership in many industrial and transportation sectors was once common in Ivalice. Privatization of most state-owned companies was completed in the 1990s; however, Ivalice National Railways and IvalAir are still in control of the state. Ivalice National Railways holds a monopoly on inter-city rail transport in Ivalice. IvalAir has several regional and international competitors, but remains the busiest domestic airline.
Transportation is highly varied in Ivalice, however it is a largely car dependent society. There are on average 678 automobiles per every 1000 Ivalicians, higher than most nations in Western Europe, but less than the United States. A series of high-quality expressways make up the National Route System and criss-cross the island.
The state railway company, Ivalice National Railways operates intercity rail service to all major cities. A series of inter-city express rail services, branded InterCity Star Express and operated by Ivalice National Railways, connects major metropolitan areas.
The commercial airline industry consists of the national flag carrier, IvalAir, and several smaller airlines, such as Eastern Airlines, or international carriers, such as Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, and British Airways. The island's busiest international air gateway is Londinium Skorcolum International Airport, which is also the chief hub of IvalAir.
The nations four largest cities, Koiwai, Ivalion, Londinium, and Randgriz City, have rapid transit systems, the most expansive being Ivalion Metrorail. Smaller cities, including Gardenia and Saint James, have light rail or bus rapid transit systems. The Midlands Crescent, which includes Londinium, has a commuter rail system with rapid transit frequencies.
Energy consumption per capita in Ivalice is 5.8 tons of oil equivalent per year, compared to the United States' 7.8 tons and Canada's 8.3 tons. A government clean energy mandate in 1987 has led to higher than average clean energy production in Ivalice. In 2008, 40% of Ivalice's energy came from fossil fuels. 20% is supplied by solar energy, 15% by hydroelectric, 10% by nuclear, and the remaining by wind, geothermal, and other sources.
Ivalice's national population is 48,872,300. The majority of this population is focused on Ivalice's eastern coast, between Ivalion, Europa Beach, and Koiwai. Immigration into the country from abroad increased the national population by 341,823 in 2009, with the most frequent country of origin being Canada.
Although there is no designated official language, English is the most commonly spoken language among residents and citizens, and is the de facto national language, used in most government publications and laws. About 83 percent of the population speaks English at home as their primary or secondary language. Spanish is the second most common language spoken at home, and most commonly taught second language. No state has an official state language.
Kapuran is also spoken in the country.
White Ivalicians, of chiefly British and German descent, make up the majority of the island's population. Hispanics, chiefly of Caribbean and Central American descent, make up the largest ethnic minority group in Ivalice, with approximately 12.4% of the population identifying as members of that race. The second largest minority group are of African descent, making up 6.2% of the population. Other prominent groups include those of Asian descent, and native Ivalicians.
The Ivalician Constitution guarantees freedom of religion as a basic human right. The most claimed religious affiliation in Ivalice was Roman Catholicism, followed by Protestantism, Islam, and several other religions. Eleven percent of Ivalicians claim no religious affiliation.
Health and Life Expectancy
Ivalice has a life expectancy of 79.3 years at birth, two years longer than the United States, but also two years less than Canada. The health care system is partially funded, and health insurance coverage is universally applied to all citizens, by the Department of Health and Humanities.
Ivalice has an extensive public education system. Education is compulsory from ages five through eighteen, though public education is offered from age three. There are three levels of education, primary, secondary, and post-secondary or tertiary. Public primary and secondary education are run by local government, and public post-secondary education run by state governments, except at the five federal universities, one in each state, an additional one on the island of Luna, and one in the City of Koiwai.
The federal government takes little role in the regulation of state education systems; however, the Department of Education issues a series of standards, against which individual school districts are compared by independent auditing agencies. The NECAS standards play a large part in the federal government's education funding formula.
Primary and secondary education are free throughout the nation, financed through local and state taxes, and federal subsidies. Subsidies are awarded based on attendance and compliance to NECAS standards. Tertiary education generally costs a tuition, with the exception of the five federal universities. Private post-secondary institutions are generally moderately-priced compared to other countries.
Military and Foreign Policy
Ivalice's military consists of five branches, the army, navy, air force, space corps, and national guard. The army consists of land-based troops and equipment, such as tanks, artillery, and personnel carriers. The navy consists of all seagoing ships, including transports and submarines. The air force consists of all military air assets, including air transports, tankers, fighter jets, and bombers. The space corps is unique to Ivalice. It consists of all government space programs, including communications satellites, space exploration programs, and all of the nation's non-defensive missile inventory. The final branch, the national guard, consists of a larger non-active troop force and a smaller force of ground vehicles, ships, and airplanes exclusively to be used in times of national emergency on Ivalician territory in the event of an invasion, terrorist attack, or other emergency. Many members of the general populace are members of the national guard.
Ivalice is one of the founding members of the United Nations. Its also member of the NATO, the WTO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Organization of American States. 87 countries have diplomatic missions in the nation's capital, Koiwai. Foreign relations are managed by the Department of State, an executive department of the Ivalician Cabinet, which is responsible for foreign relations and embassies in 166 countries.