The People's Republic of Sohainesia (Sohainesian: 蘇海共和仁民), also described as the Kimnauszist Regime, was the Sohainesian state under a one-party Marxist-Leninist totalitarian dictatorship that existed between 1972 and 1984. It was controlled by the Sohainesian Communist Party (CPS) and allies, and it was founded when Kim Nàu Szì overthrew Hwàng Hwě Jing's government.
During the Kimnauszist regime, the Communist Party and related organizations were responsible for the deaths of several thousands of Sohainesians through forced labour and genocide, until the outbreak of a civil war in 1983. This resulted in a defeat for the communists, so the government was replaced by the Republic of Sohainesia, which would become the Kingdom of Sohainesia in 1985 after people advocated for the restoration of the monarchy.
On Novenber 22, 1972, Communist Party leader Kim Nàu Szì deposed Thàng Cang as the head of state and Hwàng Hwě Jing as the head of government. The military coup d'etat was supported in North Vietnam, Mongolia, the Warsaw Pact, and the Soviet Union.
The anti-communists, realizing that Sohainesia became a Marxist-Leninist one-party state, fled to US-aligned countries for safety. Reacting to this, the Communist Party banned travel to all US-aligned countries starting on January 1, 1973. This made travel to western countries more difficult.
Life in the PRS
Under the Kimnauszist regime, Sohainesia abolished the Confucian style of education in favour of a Soviet system. During communist rule, it was mandatory to have portraits of Kim Nàu Szì inside classrooms. In addition, French was removed as a language of education (introduced in 1964) and was replaced by Chinese and Vietnamese.
Health facilities in the PRS were undeveloped. The life expectancy dropped from 71.82 in 1970 to 66.28 in 1980, and the life expectancy would only return to normal levels in 1988. Western medicine was outlawed and replaced by traditional medicine.
Religion was outlawed by the Constitution. The largest and most-visited Buddhist temple in the city was converted into a political prison by the name of Camp 001. Buddhist monks were sentenced to death just for visiting temples. Most of the religious buildings were also converted into political prisoners. Abrahamic religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam were even more persecuted, and Buddhism was removed as a state religion.
The PRS banned all existence of all ethnic minorities, except for the Vietnamese. Selected ethnic groups were forced to leave Sohainesia due to the government's mass killings of ethnic minorities. Austronesian people, which the Sohainesian government refered them as Champa, had to hide in the mountains.
Main article: Red Terror (Sohainesia)
During the PRS' existance from 1972 to 1984, many political opponents were silenced and never seen again. The Sohainesian police force targeted people who were considered "an enemy of the state". These included:
- Political dissidents and members of the former National Democratic Party. Later, many CPS members were also killed because they were suspected of "plotting against Kim Nàu Szì".
- Ethnic groups: Europeans (mostly journalists), indigenous, Champa, Chinese (especially Taiwanese)
- Religious people
- Mentally and physically disabled people
Those people would then be taken to "re-education camps" and be tortured and killed. The communist government censored the death toll, citing only 1,000 people died during this time, whereas some historians place it as high as 200,000.
The torture and violations of the PRS came to worldwide attention in 1982, when a Canadian journalist named William Michaels was found dead in his Vancouver home after writing articles criticizing the government.
Main article: Sohainesian Civil War
There had been protests and violence in the years leading up to the Sohainesian civil war, along with international condemnation with the assassination of William Michaels. Meanwhile, the government of the PRS was crumbling. Kim Nàu Szì, the leader, believed that the CPS was getting too moderate, so he killed moderate CPS members like Pǎm Tụ̀ Twa̋n (范自俊) and Viān Pìng Rụng (阮平容). Pǎm somehow managed to survive his assassination and formed a resistance group called FLS (Sohainesian Liberation Front).
Start of the war
On the morning of April 12, 1983, a student leader in the anti-communist protests named Hwàng Hyú (黃孝) arrived at a cafe in Ning Dọ District, Vian King along with some other students to discuss the protests for the day. One of them was police informant and "friend" of Hwàng named Lí Ving Nyǐ (李榮二). Lí said he felt sick, and then asked the barista for the telephone. Ly secretly called the police, telling them Hwàng was at the cafe. When Hoang and his friends exited the cafe, they were gunned down by the police. Uproar occurred when the news broke. Regular civillans and police and the military were locked in urban warfare, and the capital Vian King was a war zone. Kim Nàu Szì declared martial law and escaped to Hanoi, Vietnam on April 14.
Spread to other cities in Sohainesia
Fall of Vian King
By March 1984, PRS forces were depleted, and most didn't want to fight anymore. Kim Nàu Szì was angered and ordered the deaths of his top generals. Meanwhile, pro-democratic US-backed Sohainesian forces, the imperial family, and the FLS were arriving in Vian King. The city's defenses quickly fell and on 8:21pm, April 3, 1984, prime minister Tạn Dàng Hìng declared the Republic of Sohainesia and proclaimed himself president of Sohainesia.